Showing posts with label Khoo Kongsi. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Khoo Kongsi. Show all posts

Sunday, 30 April 2017

The Importance of Epigraphic Materials As Primary Source of Reference in Chinese Studies: Selected Case Study on Leong San Tong Khoo Kongsi, Penang


Epigraphy is a methodology in the study of inscriptions in the aspects of its cultural value and historical significance. Epigraphic material is a tangible remnant (either in the form of stone, metal or wood) inherently erected to commemorate and document the establishment of a particular event / monument. The practice of engraving writing on materials such as stone, metal or wood denotes the artistic value and appreciation towards literary composition in the form of perpetuity. Although, the practice of inscribing has been dated since ancient time, but the exposure of its expression value to the public is somehow limited. In fact, the access to the materials is also very localised. 

Only selective experts would be able to transcribe and translate ancient epigraphic materials and draw conclusions from their studies. In fact, different experts would have differing ideas in the translation and conclusion on a same epigraphic material. These arguments are crucial for researchers to gain better insights as the said experts may be trained from different approaches and thoughts. 

In this article, my intention is to discuss and create the awareness of epigraphy as a primary source of reference in Chinese Studies in Malaysia and Singapore. 

In the period of 1982 until 1987, Professor Wolfgang Franke and Chen Tieh Fan from University of Malaya published a three-volume of Chinese Epigraphic Materials in Malaysia. They also published a similar work on Indonesia. This authoritative work is important to historians and reminds the rule of thumb in the primary source when it comes to the empirical studies, thus working as complimentary references. 

Ever since the work of Prof. Franke and Chen, more similar projects were carried out, such as the Penang Fujian Public Epigraphy Materials by K.Y. Chng in 1997 (originally in Chinese 张少宽 (1997) 梹榔屿福建公冢暨家冢碑铭集. 新加坡: 新加坡亚洲硏究学会). And recently, Professor Kenneth Dean and Dr. Hue Guan Thye both from National University of Singapore published a two-volume of Chinese Epigraphy in Singapore, 1819-1911

In this article, I would like to undertake the task in studying two stones in the Leong San Tong Khoo Kongsi, Penang. and more importantly is to highlight the importance and the wealth of information unveiled through the stones. 


The Leong San Tong Khoo Kongsi, or simply known as Khoo Kongsi was originally established in 1835 as Ee Kok Tong in Penang. The membership of this establishment is restricted only to the Khoo clansmen from a same ancestral village. 

Plaque of Ee Kok Tong (Yi Gu Tang)
Source: Author's collection (Fieldwork 2011)

The story goes by in 1835 during a birthday celebration of the Khoo clan Patron Saint, Tua Sai Yah (大使爷), or Double Fifth Festival on the 5th day of the 5th moon of the Lunar Calendar in Penang. Three days after the celebration, its 102 clansmen gathered to form the clan association, which was then known as Ee Kok Tong. Thus, a sum of $528 was collected as contributions from the clansmen. After 15 years, on 5 July 1850, the Khoo clansmen gathered again and mooted for future expansion of the association. Thus, the funds collected in 1835 were used to serve the purpose. 

The two incidents mentioned above are recorded in two stones, which will be discussed in this article, they were known as: 

龍山堂石碑 (大清咸豐元年)
The Inscription of Long Shan Tang – First Year of Xian Feng Reign of Qing Dynasty (1850)

詒穀堂碑記 (光緒二十九年)
The Inscription of Yi Gu Tang – Twenty-ninth Year of Guang Xu Reign of Qing Dynasty (1904) 


The Inscription of Long Shan Tang in Khoo Kongsi, Penang

Transcription of the Inscription of Long Shan Tang
English Translation: 
The Inscription of Long Shan Tang – First Year of Xian Feng Reign of Qing Dynasty (1850)

Alluding to a particular overseas Chinese custom, in the so-called (settlement of) Penang, which separated by vast oceans, guided by the far breeze. Herein, a foreign soil, a meticulous ceremony was strictly observed in the presence of clansmen, whom will decipher their best in order not to disgrace their literacy. However, the journey from their native to the city thence to build the hall, the ceremony shall meet prior respects to the ground and other unexceptional taboos. It was due to those who were sincere to build the association hall after years of established settlements, and also for their willingness. In the autumn, the Qiu clan of Xin Jiang village, Hai Cheng district bought a piece of land. It was formerly owned by a local British merchant; (the land) faced the sea and backed by a mountain, the building was great and grand, and very much to be resplendently expanded. Thus, backed by its height, it can be transformed (into Long Shan Tang). (It had) a splendour gate of royal hall, planted with courage and sowed the triumphs so the accomplishments will abundantly prosperous, (and) it was called Long Shan Tang. Whereby, the clansmen could (use it to) honour their forefathers as well as for wedding and other occasions. The hall shall be reserved for the elders based on rank, to cultivate respect (and) to restore harmony which included related morality and mischievous actions.  

The surname of the Long Shan Tang Qiu clan was originally belonged to the Quan Jun Long Shan Ceng clan. This (fact) was not forgotten as it was recorded that the (Ceng) family had adopted the (Qiu) surname. Those who were not from the Ceng clan of Long Shan, thus, they were not affiliated with the Qiu clan of Long Shan Tang of Xin Jiang village, Hai Cheng district. There shall be a provision for the worshiping of ancestors. In a particular event, the hall shall be able to raise funds and promote goodwill (among its clansmen). Among other things, a tribute must be paid to Da Shi Ye as well as with the offerings (were made) to receive blessings on this foreign lands. Therefore, to those who had funded the hall shall be recognised as the Headmen, and this put to rest on those who did not. These people (Headmen) were of no ordinary members, as they represented the entire (Qiu) clan. This was done as reminders for patriotism and remembrance (as the clan had reached) prosperity in this foreign land. For the future generations, (the hall) may be used as the ancestral hall of the Xin Jiang Qiu clan to record the clan’s accomplishments.

First Year of Xian Feng Reign of Qing Dynasty (October, 1850)

Headmen: Hua Dong, Shi Quan, Jun Wen, Jiang Shui, Jun Dui, Tai Pin, Jun Qi, Si Fang, Xin Mei, Zhao Bang
Directors: Xin Ju, Liu You, Jun Wen, Tian De 
Recorded by: Qiu Ceng Ming, the Imperial Scholar during 28th Year of Guang Xu Reign (1902)


The Inscription of Yi Gu Tang in Khoo Kongsi, Penang

Transcription of the Inscription of Yi Gu Tang

English Translation: 
The Inscription of Yi Gu Tang – Twenty-ninth Year of Guang Xu Reign of Qing Dynasty (1904) 
During the eighth day of fifth month in the fifteenth year of Dao Guang Reign of Qing Dynasty (1835), the hall was established with the donations from a group of people as listed on the left: 
Qiu Han Zi - $24   
Qiu Hua Yan, Qiu Shu Qi, Qiu Shuang Chun, Qiu Hua Long - $20 
Qiu Zhao Gong - $16
Qiu Tai Ye - $14
Qiu Zun Yang, Qiu Hua Liu, Qiu Yue Cheng, Qiu Rong Xia, Qiu Heng Quan - $12
Qiu Hua You, Qiu Hua Li, Qiu Song Bai, Qiu Tian Jiao, Jiu Yin Feng, Qiu Yue Zhao - $10  
Qiu Xun Piao, Qiu Jun Kui, Qiu Guang Cha, Qiu Ma Liang - $8
Qiu Jun Shang, Qiu Ming Jia, Qiu San Man, Qiu Hua An, Qiu Zeng Dian, Qiu Hua Que, Qiu He Shang, Qiu Tai Xi, Qiu Zhan Kui, Qiu Da Shang, Qiu Hua Deng, Qiu Dun Hou, Qiu Heng Lu, Qiu Yu Lu, Qiu Zi Xun, Qiu He Shang - $6
Qiu Hua Bao - $5 
Qiu Huang Zhi, Qiu Shu Hui, Qiu Jun Mi, Qiu Jun Xiang, Qiu Hou Hua, Qiu Hua Ju, Qiu Hua Shuang, Qiu Hua Teng, Qiu Hua Zuo, Qiu Qi Yong, Qiu Tai He - $4
Qiu Jun Long, Qiu Hua Shun, Qiu Hua Ran - $3
Qiu Jun Ri, Qiu Jun Bin, Qiu Jun Jian, Qiu Fu Yi, Qiu Jun Chang, Qiu Guang Han, Qiu Jun Qi, Qiu Jun Hua, Qiu Jun, Qiu Jun Yuan, Qiu Jun Yan, Qiu Jun Zhi, Qiu Hua Bin, Qiu He Shang, Qiu Hua Xiang, Qiu Hua Tan, Qiu Hua Ruo, Qiu Hua Shuang, Qiu Hua Xun, Qiu Kuan Rou, Qiu Hua He, Qiu Hua Dui, Qiu Hua Sheng, Qiu Wu Zhu, Qiu Hua Jiang, Qiu Hua Zhou, Qiu Hua Gen, Qiu Hua Ju, Qiu Tai Lun, Qiu Xian Ying, Qiu Wu Yi, Qiu Tai Ruo, Qiu Bao Long, Qiu Cheng Jiao, Qiu Si Ji, Qiu Tai Huan, Qiu Tai Bing, Qiu Tai Zhui, Qiu Tai Xue - $2
Qiu Jun Zhen, Qiu Xin He, Qiu Hua Jia, Qiu Shi Fang, Qiu Hua Fa, Qiu Tai Zuo, Qiu Tai Chang, Qiu Tai Yi, Qiu Guang Quan, Qiu Cheng Hao - $1
A total of 528 silver dollars.
Collected on 30th day of 5th month of the Bing Shen year (1836)
Under the collection of Wang Sun Da Ye (referring to the clan saint patron, the Noble named Cheah Aun).
The Yi Gu Tang of Penang branch was established in the autumn of fifteenth year of Dao Guang Reign (1835). The silver (dollars) donated by the early clansmen had been cautiously and conscientiously passed down without personal interests. It was for the purpose of making a successful foundation. Fearing for lost or (losing the) interest in remembering the ancestors’ benevolence.  Therefore, the original donors on the right were memorialised on this stone. Their establishments here were difficult to be witnessed or heard (in the future), thus, this record was the only way.       
The midsummer of twenty-ninth year of Guang Xu Reign (1904). 
Recorded by Zhe Qing, the Secretary of the Qiu and Ceng of Xin Jiang


From the translations of the two stones mentioned above. We could understand that the Chinese practice in epigraphy usually contains engraved information with great detail and accurate as possible. This is to ensure, the future generations could decipher the events and circumstances that took place.

In these particular Khoo Kongsi stones, we understand the reasons of its establishment and purposes. In order to provide greater details, the Inscription of Yi Gu Tang listed down the donors who had subscribed to its establishment. Many of the names mentioned on the stones were important figures in the history of Malaysia. Their pivotal role in the Chinese social and political influence had shaped the demography in Penang, Perak, Singapore, Phuket and Burma.

Through some of the information extracted from the stones we could intensify the information with other sources. For example:

1) The Inscription of Long Shan Tang

(a) There is a mention of the criteria in selecting and constructing the building.

The actual location is at Cannon Square, the land is backed with the Penang Hills on the west and facing the waterfront at Beach Street on the east. 

(b) There is a mention of the purchase of the land from a British, a further investigation reveals that:

The land area is a 97,035 square feet lot acquired in 1851 from David Brown, under the name Khoo Family Tua Sai Yah

(c) There is a mention of the reasons and purposes of the association establishment.

This has been incorporated into the Khoo Kongsi Constitution.

2) The Inscription of Yi Gu Tang

(a) There is a mention of an assembly of Khoo clansmen.

The 102 names inscribed shows an important fact of the Khoo clansmen population in Penang.

(b) The inscription shows the names of the early Khoo clansmen in Penang.

A study on the figure mentioned, indicates that most of them were community leaders and wealthy merchants. They were later influential in many of the British policies in the Malay States. 

This article appeared as a short review of my current research "A Brief History of the Khoo Clan in Penang." 

Sunday, 17 April 2016

Khoo Yang Tin 邱扬阵


Khoo Yang Tin was born in 1857 in China, with ancestry in Sinkang Village, Hai Teng District, Fujian Province. He came to Singapore in the late 19th century and in 1892, he founded a rice trading business under the style chop Aik Chiang. 

Khoo Yang Tin’s business was affluent and diversed. He also invested in real estates and plantations with substantial investments in Saigon and other Southeast Asian countries. Khoo Yang Tin was best known for his role as a financier, where he held the directorship in the Oversea-Chinese Banking Cooperation (OCBC). The Oversea-Chinese Banking Cooperation Ltd. was formed in 1932 with the merger of three banks, Chinese Commercial Bank (est. 1912), Ho Hong Bank (est. 1917) and Oversea Chinese Bank (est. 1919). Khoo Yang Tin was known as its founding shareholder. In which the his family had a major role in behind. 

Khoo Yang Tin and his family lived in a humble live and shy from publicity. It is little known to public that he was a generous philanthropist, who had provided various financial aids to educational institutions and welfare organizations in both China and Singapore. The Khoo Yang Tin Scholarship was created by his descendant, Khoo Choon Tin in his honour for the Anglo-Chinese Junior College in Singapore. One of his sons, Khoo Teck Puat (1917 - 2007) had donated SG$50,000.00 to the Leong San Tong Khoo Kongsi, Penang in 2002 for the establishment of the Khoo clan museum. 

Khoo Yang Tin died in 1943. He has 13 sons and nine daughters through his various wives. 

Yeo Kim Chiam
Yeo Kim Chiam (1881 – 1983)

Khoo Teck Soon
Khoo Teck Chuan
Khoo Teck Puat
Khoo Teck Imm 
Khoo Teck Quee

Khoo Tiam Tee
Khoo Ai Tee
Khoo Suat Ngoh
Khoo Suat Khim 

The Straits Times, 31 March 1983, p. 39
The Straits Times, 6 October 1985, p. 10
The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser, 14 November 1914, p. 12
Lee, K.H. (2003). Dahles, H., et al. (Eds.). Capital and Knowledge in Asia: Changing Power Relations. (p. 167) 
Gomez, E.T. (1999). Chinese Business in Malaysia: Accumulation, Ascendance, Accommodation. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press (pp. 75-77)
Tan, Y.W. (2003). Leong San Tong Khoo Kongsi: The History and Architecture. Penang: Leong San Tong Khoo Kongsi (p. 48)

Wednesday, 2 January 2013

Khoo Cheng Lim 邱清林

Khoo Cheng Lim was born in 1808 in Fujian, China to Khoo Wat Seng. Khoo Wat Seng was among the early Chinese settlers in Penang and was the co-founders of the Khoo family clan temple, Ee Kok Tong in 1835 (later known as Leong San Tong Khoo Kongsi). 

Khoo Cheng Lim who was Khoo Wat Seng's eldest son, was first married Lim Neo in China, in which he had two sons, Khoo Soo Chuan and Khoo Soo Teong. He later moved to Penang to join his father. In Penang, he married Koh Keng Yean (辜輕煙) daughter of Koh Kee Jin. The Koh family was a well established member in Penang and its patriarch Koh Lay Huan was the Kapitan of Penang. The marriage was arranged so as to increase the power of the Koh-Khoo families in the Straits Settlements.

Khoo Cheng Lim had four sons through Koh Keng Yean, and his youngest son, Khoo Cheow Teong was a Chinese Kapitan of Asahan, and was made a Justice of Peace by the British in Penang. Khoo Cheng Lim's youngest son through his principal wife in China, Khoo Soo Teong was born in 1883, he married Quah Neo in China and had four sons. His second son, Khoo Ban Seng later moved to Penang and worked for his uncle, Khoo Cheow Teong. Khoo Ban Seng married Yeoh Cheam Neo (d. 1939) and had a son, Khoo Ewe Aik. 

Wednesday, 14 November 2012

Khoo Cheow Teong 邱朝仲


Khoo Cheow Teong was born in 1840 in Penang to Khoo Cheng Lim (b. 1808) and Koh Keng Yean (辜輕煙) daughter of Koh Kee Jin. His mother was a granddaughter of Koh Lay Huan (Chinese Kapitan of Penang), a prominent figure in Penang. Khoo Cheow Teong’s grandfather Khoo Wat Seng was a prominent leader in Penang and was a founder of Ee Kok Tong (later Leong San Tong), a family clan temple. 

Khoo Cheow Teong was educated in Chinese and began his career in a Chinese firm as an assistant. After served for some time, he went to Perak and commenced business on his own account. Khoo Cheow Teong later moved to Asahan, Sumatra to venture into food provision business. It was for his strong determination and hard work that made Khoo Cheow Teong became a successful general merchant. Eventually in 1878, he was appointed as the Chinese Kapitan Titular of Asahan. By then Khoo Cheow Teong was known to be able to speak fluent Dutch and English. 

In 1874 he married the eldest daughter of Lim Cheoh, a popular rice merchant in Malacca. The marriage was arranged by him within six months, in which he had conscientiously selecting his wife. During this time, Khoo Cheow Teong was well established in Perak and had the interest in the government revenue farms in Deli, Asahan, Bengkalis and Penang. 

After 26 years serving as the Kapitan, in 1904 he relinquished the post and spent his time in Asahan taking care of his business affairs assisted by his son Khoo Sian Wei. When it was reaching to a time where Khoo Cheow Teong thought he should spend his remaining time in a much peaceful place, in 1909 he returned to his birth place, Penang with his family, leaving his eldest son to in charge the business in Asahan. 

Khoo Cheow Teong was well-known for his generosity in supporting the education institutions in Penang. He was the benefactor of the St Xavier’s Institution, Anglo-Chinese School and the Penang Free School. In August 1908, he presented all boys’ schools in Penang each $1,500 for scholarships. Khoo Cheow Teong was also less known for his monetary contribution to a Muslim mosque in Asahan. Besides, the effort in assisting local schools in Penang, he also donated $2,000 to the King Edward VII Medical College in Singapore. During World War I, Khoo Cheow Teong and Gan Goh Bee donated a reconnaissance plane to Britain and the plane was named “Malaya No. 15 ~ Khoo Cheow Teong – Gan Goh Bee” 

In recognition for his contributions in Penang, he was made a Justice of Peace and Khoo Cheow Teong Court, a cul-de-sac off Fish Lane in Penang was named after him. Khoo Cheow Teong also became a trustee in Leong San Tong Khoo Kongsi (his family clan temple), where he was belonged to Cheng Pang, a sub-lineage of his family clan and could trace his lineage for being the 20th generation descendant of the family progenitor, Khoo Chian Eng.

Khoo Cheow Teong died on 1 September 1916 in his mansion Sunbean Hall (opposite the Penang Supreme Court). He had three sons and three daughters. His eldest son, Khoo Sian Wei married daughter of Goh Khuan Leong. His second son, Khoo Sian Ewe first married Lee Sim Neoh, and later Lee Gaik Thye both were daughters of Lee Bian Tiong of Penang. His second daughter, Khoo Chooi Lian married Yeoh Guan Seok, a lawyer in 1908. Khoo Cheow Teong's another wife, Cheah Geok Swan was the mother of Khoo Sian Wei and Khoo Sian Ewe and two daughters.

Monday, 12 November 2012

Khoo Thean Tek 邱天德

Khoo Thean Tek

There are two variant accounts on the birth time of Khoo Thean Tek (also spelled as Khoo Thean Teik). According to Wright (1907), Khoo Thean Tek was born in 1826. However, in the Straits Settlements Law Reports as well as the family genealogy, it verified that Khoo Thean Tek was born in April 1818 in Penang. Khoo Thean Tek was the third son of Khoo Guat Cheow 邱月照 (1784 - 1857). He was belonged to Hai Teoh Pang, a sub-lineage of his family clan and was a 19th generation descendant of Khoo clan.

Khoo Thean Tek died on 8 April 1890 in Penang, living behind seven sons (including one adopted son) and four daughters. He first married Chew Hong Neo as her principal wife, and after her death, he married Ooi Lean Keow (黄娇娘) and had her as his principal wife. Besides, the principal wife, Khoo Thean Thek had many other secondary wives (t’sip) distributed all over Federated Malay States and Straits Settlements, respectively.

As Khoo Thean Tek’s two eldest sons died before him in 1880s, thus his third son (later the fourth son) Khoo Hun Yeang took over the management of the family’s estates. Khoo Hun Yeang worked at his father coconut estates in Province Wellesley for some time before moved to George Town and engaged in Opium & Spirit Farms and had tin mining interest in Perak, his business was carried out under the firm Chin Lee & Co. Khoo Hun Yeang was the Vice-Chairman, Penang Chinese Town Hall, as well a Board Member of the Kek Lok Si and the Cheng Hoon Giam Temple (Snake Temple). Later he moved to Kuching, Sarawak and involved in the construction industry. The main street, Khoo Hun Yeang Road, which he built in Kuching was named after him. Khoo Hun Yeang died in Medan at the age of 57 years. He was buried in Kampung Bahru, Penang, at his family burial ground. 

On 8 December 1888, Khoo Thean Tek executed three settlements of immovable property. One of these settlements, ‘Family Residence Settlement’ was declared void by a decree dated 19 July 1895 and made in Suit No. 202 of 1894. The other two valid settlements were referred to as the ‘Real Estate Settlement’ and the ‘Boon Eow Tong Settlement.’ By the Real Estate Settlement, Khoo Thean Tek, in consideration of the natural love and affection which he had towards his brothers (Thean Poh & Thean Lye) children and grandchildren conveyed certain immovable property the trustees to be held during the joint lives of certain named persons and the life of the survivor and a term of 21 years from the death of the survivor upon trusts. 

Khoo Thean Tek who received Chinese education was a well-known figure in the history of Malaysia. His pivotal role in the Chinese social and political influence had shaped the demography in Penang and Perak. He was referred as a leader for a notorious secret society in the early seventeenth century known as Kean Tek Tong Society (Tua Pek Kong), in which he succeeded Khoo Teng Pang.  Khoo Thean Tek was also a key figure in Hai San (a secret society) had involved in the Penang Riots in 1867. He was initially sentenced to death, but due to the consideration of his political and social influences, his sentence was lowered to imprisonment for a period of 7 years, and he was banished to Singapore (Pieris, 2002) for causing the riots and kiosks raged in Penang and Perak during 1862 until 1873. There are various accounts in the judgment of Khoo's trial. Khoo whom was the leader of Tua Pek Kong, a society with members largely formed from wealthy Hokkien merchants (many were authorized licensees in dealing weapon and gun powers businesses) were in favour by the British (due to the fact that these Hokkien merchants were naturalized British subject). And it is not the colonial's policy to provoke public anger, especially one that concerns of an important figure (Cowan, 1961). Thus, the actual execution of the sentences were justified but remained in a very low profile. According to Wynne (1941), it was said the sentences were lasted for 18 months in between the Christmas until Chinese New Year and not 7 years as reported in other resources.

Khoo Thean Tek in his later life had actively involved in business affairs, where he in partnership with Chung Keng Quee ventured tin mining in Larut, Perak. His firms Khoon Ho (坤和) and Chin Bee & Co. (振美公司) were engaged in sugar and coconut plantations (Province Wellesley), opium farming (Hong Kong & Penang) and tin mining (Perak). He was also a member in the Board of Directors of the Khean Guan Insurance Company, the first Chinese insurance company in the Straits Settlements. Apart from business affairs, he also actively involved in social welfare, and in 1851 he was a Trustee of Leong San Tong Khoo Kongsi (his family clan temple), and founder of Boon San Tong Khoo Kongsi (Parentage Society of Khoo Clan) in 1878, to honour his branch patriarch, Khoo Kong Oon, a fifth generation of Khoo Chian Eng.  During the early establishment of the Penang Chinese Town Hall in 1881, Khoo Thean Tek was its Chairman, he also became a trustee of the Ong Seng Temple, and Hokkien Public Cemetery. 

Due to his invaluable contributions to his family clan temple, a large estate at Ayer Itam owned by Leong San Tong was named after him. On the other hand, Thean Teik Road in Penang was named in honour for his contributions in the development of Penang economy. 

1st Brother = Khoo Thean Sang 邱天送 (b. 1815)
2nd Brother = Khoo Thean Hoe 邱天厚 (b. 1817)
4th Brother = Khoo Thean Siew 邱天修 (b. 1821)
5th Brother = Khoo Thean Chai 邱天财 (b. 1821)
6th Brother = Khoo Thean Seng 邱天生 (b. 1824)
7th Brother = Khoo Thean Cho 邱天佐
8th Brother = Khoo Thean Poh 邱天宝 (b. 1833)
9th Brother = Khoo Thean Lye 邱天来 (b. 1837)

1st son = Khoo Hun Kang 邱汉江 (b. 1842 - died around 1880s) ~ 2 sons
2nd son = Khoo Hun Chin 邱汉津 (b. 1856 - died around 1880s) ~ 3 adopted sons
3rd son = Khoo Hun Tee 邱汉地 also known as Edward Edwin Gaudoin (Godyne) (22 January 1854 – 1906)
4th son = Khoo Hun Yeang 邱汉阳 (1859 – 1917) ~ 7 sons
5th son = Khoo Hun Yeam 邱汉友 (1862 – 1922)

Adopted son: 
Khoo Hun Boh
Khoo Hun Eng

Khoo Suan See married Lim Seng Kim second son of Lim Chooi Chuan

Khoo Tong Huan 邱懂返 son of Khoo Hun Kang
Khoo Tong Hean 邱懂狠 son of Khoo Hun Kang
Khoo Ngay Tuan 邱雅端 son of Khoo Hun Chin
Khoo Ngay Tean 邱雅殿 son of Khoo Hun Chin
Khoo Hooi Leong son of Khoo Hun Tee
Khoo Hooi Haw son of Khoo Hun Tee
Khoo Siew Keat 邱守节 son of Khoo Hun Yeang
khoo Siew Ghee 邱守智 son of Khoo Hun Yeang
Khoo Siew Jin 邱守仁 son of Khoo Hun Yeang
Khoo Siew Lee 邱守礼 son of Khoo Hun Yeang
Khoo Siew Yee 邱守义 son of Khoo Hun Yeang
Khoo Siew Teong 邱守忠 son of Khoo Hun Yeang
Khoo Siew Lian 邱守廉 son of Khoo Hun Yeang
Khoo Siew Kok 邱守国 son of Khoo Hun Yeam
Khoo Hooi Hye son of Khoo Hun Eng

Adopted grandsons: 

Khoo Heng Quee aka Khoo Hean Quee 邱显贵

Grand daughters:
Khoo Chye Lian 邱彩莲 daughter of Khoo Hun Chin

Khoo Thean Poh (1833 – 21 January 1919)
Mrs Khoo Thean Poh (Madam Toh Bee Beng 杜媚明)
Mrs Khoo Thean Choe’s (d. 22 July 1911)
Mrs Khoo Thean Chai (Madam Goh Hui Neo 吴惠娘)
Khoo Hun Eng's mother (Madam Boey Kooi Lan 梅桂兰)
Khoo Chin Keat son of Khoo Thean Poh
Khoo Hong Swee, Khoo Hun Yeang’s cousin
Khoo Sian Tan son of Khoo Hong Swee
Mrs Khoo Ngay Tean (Madam Yong Tuan Neo 杨端娘)
Khoo Bin Tuan second daughter of Khoo Chin Keat married Tan Bah Teik

Source of Reference:
  1. Khoo Hooi Leong v. Khoo Chong Yeok, Privy Council Straits Settlements Law Report (p. 129) 
  2. Re Khoo Thean Tek’s Settlements 1928, Supreme Court, Straits Settlements Law Report (pp. 51 - 52)
  3. Wright, A. (1907). Twentieth Century Impressions of British Malaya: Its History, People, Commerce, Industries, and Resources (p. 156)
  4. Leong San Tong Khoo Kongsi Penang 
  5. Tan, K.H. (2007). The Chinese in Penang: A Pictorial History. Penang: Areca Books (p.101)
  6. Wynne, M.L. (1941) Triad and Tabut: A Study of the Origin and Diffusion of Chinese and Mohamedan Secret Societies in the Malay peninsular AD 1800-1935, Singapore: Government Printing Office
  7. Cowan, C.D. (1961) Nineteenth Century Malaya: The Origins of British Political Control. Oxford: Oxford University Press
  8. Emerson, R. (1969) Malaysia: A Study in Direct and Indirect Rule. Singapore: University of Malaya
  9. Pieris, A. (2002) Doubtful Associations: Reviewing Penang through the 1867 Riots. In Penang Story, Paper presented at International Conference 2002 18-21 April 2002, The City Bayview Hotel, Penang, Malaysia. The Penang Heritage Trust & STAR Publications
  10. The Genealogy of the Sinkang Khoo & Chan Clans (Vol. 1)
*1st Revision: 5 February 2013
*2nd Revision: 6 February 2013
*3rd Revision: 16 April 2017