Wednesday, 2 January 2013

Khoo Cheng Lim 邱清林

Khoo Cheng Lim was born in 1808 in Fujian, China to Khoo Wat Seng. Khoo Wat Seng was among the early Chinese settlers in Penang and was the co-founders of the Khoo family clan temple, Ee Kok Tong in 1835 (later known as Leong San Tong Khoo Kongsi). 

Khoo Cheng Lim who was Khoo Wat Seng's eldest son, was first married Lim Neo in China, in which he had two sons, Khoo Soo Chuan and Khoo Soo Teong. He later moved to Penang to join his father. In Penang, he married Koh Keng Yean (辜輕煙) daughter of Koh Kee Jin. The Koh family was a well established member in Penang and its patriarch Koh Lay Huan was the Kapitan of Penang. The marriage was arranged so as to increase the power of the Koh-Khoo families in the Straits Settlements.

Khoo Cheng Lim had four sons through Koh Keng Yean, and his youngest son, Khoo Cheow Teong was a Chinese Kapitan of Asahan, and was made a Justice of Peace by the British in Penang. Khoo Cheng Lim's youngest son through his principal wife in China, Khoo Soo Teong was born in 1883, he married Quah Neo in China and had four sons. His second son, Khoo Ban Seng later moved to Penang and worked for his uncle, Khoo Cheow Teong. Khoo Ban Seng married Yeoh Cheam Neo (d. 1939) and had a son, Khoo Ewe Aik. 

Saturday, 22 December 2012

China and her Overseas People

The Chinese Consulates 

The formation of the Chinese Consulates in Singapore and Penang in 1877 and 1890 respectively, was primarily to serve as communication platform between the Chinese Government and the overseas Chinese. Apart from that, it was also the Chinese Government's initiative to gain support and loyalty from her wealthy overseas members. 

The office of the Vice-Consul functions in various aspects and capacities. The diplomatic rule of the Chinese Vice-Consul was based in demography and geography of British Malaya. For instance, the Penang branch engaged with the Chinese affairs in Penang, Perak, Selangor, Kedah and Perlis. Whereas, the Singapore branch concerned in the area such as Johor, Malacca, Negri Sembilan, Kelantan and Terengganu. 

The primitive role of the Vice-Consul was also concerned in protecting the Chinese and their business interests. However, in the early 1900s, other Chinese organisations such as the Chinese Advisory Board (1890), Chinese Chamber of Commerce, Po Leung Kuk (1885) as well as other Chinese clan associations had surged in all major towns in the British Malaya, thus the importance of the Vice-Consul had apparently ceased.

In 1891, the Vice-Consul of Singapore was promoted to the rank of Consul General for Southeast Asia. And in 1933, a Chinese Consulate was established in Kuala Lumpur and dealt with the Chinese affairs in the Federated Malay States, the engagements were mostly in civil, commercial and political affairs. In subsequent to this newly formed Consulate in Kuala Lumpur, thus, the functions of the Consuls in Singapore and Penang were ceased. 

Although the function of the Chinese Consulate had relinquished many of its concerns. However, the issuance of visiting passports to the overseas Chinese still evident. These passports were permission granted to the overseas Chinese for returning to their home districts in China. In 1939, the Chinese Consul in Kuala Lumpur, Shih Shao-tseng made a new policy, by having the local Chinese associations to stand as witnesses to the applicants of passport.

List of Chinese Vice-Consuls in Penang
1890 - 1894 - Cheong Fatt Tze 張弼士 (Chang Pi-shih/Thio Tiauw Siat)
1894 - 1895 - Chang Yu Nan 張煜南 (Thio Chee Non/Chong Yit Nam/Chong Chee Non)
1895 - 1901 - Cheah Choon Seng 謝春生 (Tjia Tioen Sen)
1901 - 1907 - Leong Fee 梁輝 (Liang Pi-joo)
1907 - 1912 - Tye Kee Yoon 戴喜云 (Tai Hsin-jan)
1912 - 1930 - Tye Phey Yuen (Tai Shu-yuan)
1930 - 1931 - Yang Hsiao-tang 楊念祖
1931 - 1933 - Lu Tzu-chin 呂子勤
1933 - 1941 - Huan Yen-kai

In the first five appointed Chinese Vice-Consul in Penang, the office was held by the Hakka-origin Chinese with business interests in Southeast Asia. Most of these men were illiterate, and their connections were through family-link and business collaborations. Cheong Fatt Tze and Chang Yu Nan were cousins, and Cheah Choon Seng was a business partner with Cheong Fatt Tze, whereas Leong Fee was his son-in-law. Ironically, these leaders were not Straits Chinese or British subjects but Chinese from the Dutch East Indies and they were pro-Qing government's policies in China. Their representative in the Chinese Consulate could suggest unpopular and feudal, as most Straits Chinese were then received Western education and some had been influenced by Dr Sun Yat Sen's uprising movement against the Qing Government. In fact, there were already formed the silent community in resisting the Qing Government. Early pioneers such as Goh Say Eng, Ooi Kim Kheng, Loh Chong Huo were founders of Tongmenghui in Penang, which fight against the corrupted Qing Government.  On 17 August 1900, Tan Jiak Kim, Seah Liang Seah, Dr Lim Boon Keng and Song Ong Siang founded the Straits Chinese British Association in Singapore. Two months later, a similar branch was set up in Malacca. The Penang wing was established in 1920. This association was a pro-British movement led by the Hokkien-origin Chinese, many of their members held high government positions and recognized by the British as local Chinese leaders. They represented the Chinese in the Straits Settlements and British Malaya in the local Legislative Council and State Councils. Following with the fall of Qing Dynasty Government in 1912, the appointment of the Vice-Consul in Penang by the Republic of China were more selective-based in term of education and experience backgrounds. For instance,Yang Hsiao-tang was educated at the Kiangsu Provincial College in Suzhou and prior his appointment he had held various government positions in China. And Lu Tze-chin who acted for a short term was a capable young man graduated from the Peking Academy in 1922 and Nankai University, Tianjin in 1926. He was later appointed as the first Chinese Consul in Kuala Lumpur. 

NOTE: Yang Hsiao-tang was educated at the Kiangsu Provincial College in Suzhou born in Shanghai in 1890. He was educated at the Kiangsu Provincial College in Soochow. He joined the diplomatic service as a secretary in the Bureau of Foreign Affairs at Shanghai in 1911, and later became the chief secretary and director of the Land Office of the Bureau. In 1926, he was promoted Superintendent of Customs and concurrently Commissioner of Foreign Affairs at Nanking. He was appointed Chinese Consul-general at Penang in 1930 and transferred to Shanghai as Director of Shanghai Office of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in 1931. He was also in the Land Bureau of the City Government of Shanghai Municipality. 

Lu Tze-chin or Lu Tzu-chin was born in Hanyang, Hubei in 1904. He graduated from the Peking Academy in 1922 and Nankai University, Tientsin in 1926. In 1928 he passed the Diplomatic and Consular Service Examinations held by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Lu Tze-chin had held the office of Chancellor of the Chinese Consulate in Vancouver, Canada (1929), Deputy Consul in Penang (1930), Deputy Consul in Singapore (1932), and acting Vice Consul in Penang (1933). 

Qing Dynasty Titles and Honours 

After the collapsed of the Ming Dynasty, the Qing Dynasty Government followed the Ming's ruling structure and system. The Emperor headed the six ministries (六部), each ministry was assisted by two chancellors (尚書) and four assistant-chancellors (侍郎). The only difference in the Qing's court is the ethnic classification. Each position in the Qing's court was filled by a Manchurian (the royal family member) and a Han Chinese official whom passed the state examinations. The Manchurian functions as an overseer to his Han Chinese counterpart in performing the duty. Despite the same ranking, both wore a different official attire. In which, the Manchurians will have a small round emblem on the robes and a square emblem for the Han officials. 

The Qing official attire design came with the identification of hierarchy known as the Mandarin Square (補子). This Mandarin Square distinguishes into the division of military and civilian with nine rankings (九品), each ranking has a unique emblem, the first class rank being the highest and the ninth class rank being the lowest. The Mandarin Square was first used during the Mongol rule in Yuan Dynasty, after the fall of the Yuan Dynasty, the Ming's court then adopted this official ranking system. In 1391, Emperor Hongwu decreed bird patterns on the squares should be restricted to civil officials, and animal patterns reserved for military officials. However, the Qing's court started to use this system in 1652, during the rule of Emperor Shunzhi. Below are the emblem patterns used in the division of military and civil officials: 

1. Qilin
2. Lion
3. Tiger - Leopard (after 1644)
4. Leopard - Tiger (after 1644)
5. Bear
6. Panther
7. Panther - Rhinoceros (after 1759) 
8. Rhinoceros
9. Sea Horse

1. Crane
2. Golden Pheasant
3. Peacock
4. Wild Goose
5. Silver Pheasant
6. Egret
7. Mandarin Duck
8. Quail
9. Paradise Flycatcher

The Mandarin square for the Han officials has two identical pieces, one for the chest and the other for the back, each measures 12 inches square. The Qing's official attire came in a set of dark robe, red floss-silk fringes headgear and beads. There are two type of headgear used according to the season. The summer headgear has a conical shape woven from strips of bamboo and edged with silk brocade and the winter headgear usually a black skull cap with upturned fur brim. There is also a peacock feather (hua ling) attached on the headgear, this plume is a special distinction conferred by the Emperor. A single-eye plume was conferred upon nobles and officials down to the sixth class official. On the top of the headgear there is a knob that identifies the ranking of the official. The colours of the knob also distinguish the ranks, as show in the following: 

1. Royalty and Nobility wore numerous pearls 
2. First class official = red ball (originally a ruby)
3. Second class official = solid red ball (originally coral)
4. Third class official = translucent blue ball (originally sapphire)
5. Fourth class official = solid blue ball
6. Fifth class official = translucent white ball (originally crystal)
7. Sixth class official = solid white ball (originally mother of pearl)
8. Seventh to Ninth class official = gold or clear amber balls of various designs

In the mid 19th and early 20th centuries, the Qing's court offered numerous official titles and honours to the wealthy overseas Chinese, this honour was known by the Europeans as Mandarin of the Blue Cotton. This was for the purpose in exchange of lucrative donations and investments to fund the government's expenditure in solving famine, natural catastrophe and major infrastructure investments (such as railways, factories, mining and banking). By then, many overseas Chinese had built considerable wealth and their purchase of these honorific titles was merely to enhance their social status. Most of the wealthy Chinese merchants purchased these titles under the category of Honorary, and had no absolute ruling power as of those officials in the same rank who had passed the state examinations in China.

For instance, Khoo Seok Wan (Singapore) received his Juren 举人 title in 1894 and Chan Yap Thong  (Perak) received his Xiucai 秀才 title, both lads had passed the provincial examinations in China. Unlike Cheang Hong Lim (Dao Yuan degree 道員) who had purchased numerous titles for his family in 1869 (including for his ancestors and his 11 sons), his father Cheong Sam Teow was given the title Jin Shi (进士), the highest scholar title. In between 1877 until 1912, there were 295 holders of Qing honour titles and ranks, of this figure, 5 obtained through the imperial examinations. These titles include civilian titles from First grade Guang Lu Da Fu to the lowest Ninth Grade Deng Shi Zuo Lang as listed below:

Qing's Court Civilian Degrees 
1st Class Official = Guanglu Dafu 光祿大夫
2nd Class Official = Jinshi Chushen 进士出身
3rd Class Official = Tong Jinshi Chushen 同进士出身
4th Class Official = Zhong Xian Dafu 中憲大夫
5th Class Official = Fengzheng Dafu 奉政大夫
6th Class Official = Chengde Lang 承德郎
7th Class Official = Zheng Shilang 征仕郎
8th Class Official = Xiuzhi Zuolang 修職佐郎
9th Class Official = Dengshi Zuolang 登仕佐郎

Cheng Hong Kok 清芳阁 in 1897, it was an elite merchants' club. Some of its members had purchased the Qing honours and showed off their mandarin robes.

Chinese community in Singapore presented the Queen Victoria statue to Sir Cecil Smith in 1889

Khoo Cheng Teow in his Mandarin attire

Low Kim Pong 劉金榜

Foo Choo Choon, 3rd Class Rank Civilian Official

Mei Quong Tat, 4th Class Rank Civilian Official in 1894
(Courtesy: State Library of Victoria)

  1. Chee, L.S. (1971). The Hakka Community in Malaya, with Special Reference to Their Associations, 1801-1968. Unpublished Dissertation (M.A.). Kuala Lumpur: University of Malaya
  2. Khoo, S.N. (2008). Sun Yat Sen in Penang. Penang: Areca Books. page 22 - 23
  3. Tan, K.H. (2007). The Chinese in Penang: A Pictorial History. Penang: Areca Books. page 122
  4. Song, O.S. (1923). One Hundred Years' History of the Chinese in Singapore. London: John Murray
  5. Ramsay, C. (2007). Days Gone by: Growing Up in Penang. Penang: Areca Books. page 23
  6. The Straits Times, 4 October 1933, Page 12
  7. Ministry of Interior National Government of China. (1936). Who's Who in China: Biographies of Chinese Leaders 5th Edition. Shanghai: The China Weekly Review. page 181, 269 - 270
  8. Reynolds, D.R. (1995). China, 1895-1912 State Sponsored Reforms and China's Late-Qing Revolution, 28(3-4)
  9. Yen, C.H. (Sept. 1970). Ch'ing's Sale of Honours and the Chinese Leadership in Singapore and Malaya (1877-1912). Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 20-32

Thursday, 6 December 2012

Kao Kuen 高錕

Sir Charles Kao
KBE, GBM (Hong Kong), PhD (London) 

Kao Kuen or Charles Kao was born on 4 November 1933 in Shanghai to Kao Chun-hsiang 高君湘, a Professor of Law at Soochow University. Charles' grandfather, Kao Sit 高燮 was a notable Chinese scholar. In 1959, Charles married Wong May Wan 黄美芸 in London, and has a son and a daughter. Charles is belonged to a well-educated family, his brother, Kao Wu 高鋙 or Timothy Kao was a Professor Emeritus in Civil Engineering at the Catholic University of America. And his uncle, Kao Ping-tse 高平子 was a notable astronomer, Kao Crater on the moon was named after him.  

Charles received his early education at home, studying Chinese classics together with his brother. He also attended an international school in Shanghai, and studied French and English. In 1948, his family migrated to Hong Kong, and Charles was enrolled to St. Joseph's College and completed his study in 1952. He then furthers his study at Woolwich Polytechnic and obtained a degree in electrical engineering. 

In 1965 he completed his doctoral degree in electrical engineering from the University College London under the supervision of Professor Harold Barlow. He was then an engineer for the Standard Telephones & Cables working as a researcher at the Standard Telecommunication Laboratories in Harlow.  It was during this time, he developed the transmission of light in fibre optic in telecommunications and was notably honoured with the Noble Prize in Physics in 2009. Today he is known in the modern science as the Father of Fiber Optic Communications.

In 1996, he endowed a research grant to the Yale University and founded the Charles Kao Fund Research Grant. Since early 2004, Charles suffered Alzheimer's disease and  has difficulty to talk. He is currently living with his children and grandchildren at Mountain View, California.

During his early time, Charles was awarded numerous accolades in recognition for his work and has received at least 17 honorary degrees  from the universities in the United States, United Kingdom, Canada, China, Japan, Hong Kong and Italy. He also held various positions in public and private organisations, and was most notable for being honoured to be a Life Fellow of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers in the United States.

Saturday, 1 December 2012

Khoo Siew Jin 邱守仁

Khoo Siew Jin

Khoo Siew Jin was born in 1884 in Penang to Khoo Hun Yeang. He was known as a young-business achiever. Khoo Siew Jin was first received Chinese education in Penang, and when his parents moved to Singapore in 1898 he enrolled to the Anglo Chinese School. After he finished his four-year studies in ACS, he went to Kuching, Sarawak and worked as an assistant in the Opium, Spirit & Gambling Farms, in which his father had the interest. Within two years’ time, he was promoted to General Manager of the Sawarak General Farm, a post in which he held for three years before commenced his own government farm. In partnership with his cousin, Khoo Sian Tan, they founded the Ban Hoe Kongsi in Rhio and Ban Lee Kongsi in Karimon, respectively. Both lads were well-known as strong tenderer for the Johore Opium & Sprit Farms on 3 November 1906. However shortly after that, the $90,000 worth contract was in dispute when they alleged the Johore Government had breached the contract. At a very young age, Khoo Siew Jin had built a considerable wealth, his property were distributed in Penang, Singapore and Sarawak. He was a member in the Sarawak Merchants’ Club, Honorary Secretary of the Penang Chinese Union and many other positions. Khoo Siew Jin married a daughter of Quah Mah Tek of Penang and had one son, Khoo Seng Kay (d. 20 November 1925). Khoo Siew Jin was belonged to an illustrious family, his grandfather Khoo Thean Tek was a well-known figure in the Straits Settlements, however, Khoo Siew Jin and his family remained a very low profile in public affairs.

Sunday, 25 November 2012

Khoo Kay Kim 邱家金

Emeritus Professor Tan Sri Khoo Kay Kim,
PSM, DPMP, DPMS, JSM, Ph.D (Malaya) 

Khoo Kay Kim was born on 28 March 1937 in Kampar, Perak to Khoo Soo Jin and Chuah Gaik See daughter of Chuah Cheng Cheong. His great grandfather, Khoo Su Cheow was a tin miner at Gopeng and lived in Ipoh. Khoo Su Cheow's tin mines were operating during the early 20th century and declined in 1930. Khoo Kay Kim's grandfather, Khoo Heng Wan (d. 1918) was an employer of his father-in-law's business in Kampar. Khoo Kay Kim's parents were married in 1935, in which his father was a government servant, whom had served in Batu Gajah, Teluk Anson, Grik, and Ipoh. On 28 March 1966, Khoo Kay Kim married N. Rathi Malar and has three sons, Eddin Khoo Bu-Eng, Rubin Khoo and Mavin Khoo Bu-Ann.

Khoo Kay Kim was educated at the Anglo Chinese School, Kampar (1945-1951) and later to the St. Michael's Institution, Ipoh (1956). He received B.A. (Hons) History and M.A. History from the University of Malaya, Singapore in 1960 and 1967, respectively. In 1974, he became the first Malaysian to obtain a PhD in History from the Faculty of Arts, University of Malaya. In which, his doctoral thesis titled 'The Beginnings of Political Extremism in Malaya 1915-1935,' was under the supervision of Professor Kennedy G. Tregonning. 

Khoo Kay Kim began his career as a teacher at the Anglo Chinese School in 1960. After four years teaching, in April 1964 he became a tutor at the University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur. He was promoted to Assistant Lecturer in April 1966 until July 1968, where he became a full lecturer. Shortly afterwards, in July 1974, he was promoted to Associate Professor and held the Chair of History at the University of Malaya. In May 1975, Khoo Kay Kim was installed a full Professorship. He was the Dean of the Faculty of Literary and Social Science, University of Malaya (1984 - 1986) and was the founder and the first Director of Sports Centre, University of Malaya (1995 - 1996). 

Khoo Kay Kim is famed for being the co-founder of the National Principles (Rukun Negara) and has written and published numerous topic in the history of Malaysia and its social development interests. On 7 October 2001, he was honoured with the title Emeritus Professor of History by the University of Malaya for his contributions to the History Department and the Faculty of Literary and Social Science.

Khoo Kay Kim is a member of the Selangor State Museum Board, National Film Policy Consultative Panel, Copyright Tribunal, National Cultural Advisory Council, Institute of Strategic and International Studies (ISIS), Cluster Schools Advisory Board, Human Rights Commission of Malaysia (SUHAKAM), Anti-Corruption Advisory Board of the Malaysian Anti-Corruption Commission (MACC) and many others. He is also the President of the Malaysia Branch Royal Asiatic Society (MBRAS) and Advisor for Malaysian University of Southern California Alumni (MUSCA).

On 1 June 1983, he was honoured with the Johan Setia Mahkota (JSM) from the Federal Government. In April 1987, the Sultan of Perak awarded him Dato' Paduka Mahkota Perak (DPMP) which carries the title Dato' and subsequently on 11 December 2009, the Sultan of Selangor awarded him Dato' Paduka Mahkota Selangor (DPMS) which also carries the title Dato'. On 7 June 2008, Khoo Kay Kim received the Panglima Setia Mahkota (PSM) which carries the title Tan Sri, the Malaysian second highest title awarded to a civilian. 

The contributions of Khoo Kay Kim to the national interests are often regarded as invaluable and insightful. His thoughts and views in the academia are highly sought-after. On 28 September 2012, he was admitted to the University of Malaya Medical Centre due to heart attack.

Sunday, 18 November 2012

Khoo Ewe Aik 邱有益

Khoo Ewe Aik

Khoo Ewe Aik was born in 1893 in Penang to Khoo Ban Seng and Yeoh Cheam Neo. He was a great grandson of Khoo Cheng Lim. His grandfather, Khoo Soo Teong was a brother to Khoo Cheow Teong. 

Khoo Ewe Aik was educated at the Penang Free School, and passed the Senior Cambridge Examination in 1911. He was then among the few English-educated Straits Chinese who had the knowledge in written Chinese. Khoo Ewe Aik married Ooi Jeu Yen and had two sons, Khoo Teng Cheang and Khoo Teng Chye. 

His firm, Ban Seng Huat Co., a construction and materials supplier company was well-known in Penang. The firm had joined many government contracts, among of it were the Penang Maternity Hospital, Tiger Hill Reservoir, the Glugor Marine Depot, two of Volunteers' Quarters at Perak Road and Peel Avenue and many others. Apart from that, Ban Seng Huat & Co. also carried on renovation works for the St George's Church at Farquhar Street, Penang Free School at Green Lane, Penang Hill Hotel, and many others. 

In 1937, Khoo Ewe Aik was appointed by the Governor to became a member of the Chinese Advisory Board replacing Lee Soon Theam, serving for a two-year term. He was also the President and managing trustee of Leong San Tong Khoo Kongsi (his family clan temple), Committee Member of the Penang Chinese Chamber of Commerce, and held many important roles in Chinese associations and clubs in Penang. 

In his later life, Khoo Ewe Aik spent his remaining time in looking after the welfare of his family clan temple. His business interests were taken over by his two sons and later renamed the firm as Khoo Ewe Aik Realty Sdn Bhd (邱有益实业有限公司). Khoo Ewe Aik's second son, Khoo Teng Chye (邱鼎才) who  was educated at the Melbourne University in Australia was a former Assemblyman for Dhoby Ghaut (Penang) during the time of Lim Chong Eu's leadership. Khoo Ewe Aik's contributions to the Penang Chinese is often regarded as invaluable, his name is highly respected by the Chinese community in various section. He died in 1978 in Penang.

  1. The Straits Times, 20 January 1937, Page 13
  2. The Straits Times, 25 September 1937, Page 12
  3. The Straits Times, 7 February 1925, Page 8
  4. The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser (1884-1942), 30 March 1931, Page 12
  5. Wong, C.S. (1964). A Gallery of Chinese Kapitans. Singapore: Dewan Bahasa & Kebudayaan Kebangsaan. (pp. 23 - 24)
  6. Leong San Tong Khoo Kongsi Museum 

Wednesday, 14 November 2012

Khoo Cheow Teong 邱朝仲


Khoo Cheow Teong was born in 1840 in Penang to Khoo Cheng Lim (b. 1808) and Koh Keng Yean (辜輕煙) daughter of Koh Kee Jin. His mother was a granddaughter of Koh Lay Huan (Chinese Kapitan of Penang), a prominent figure in Penang. Khoo Cheow Teong’s grandfather Khoo Wat Seng was a prominent leader in Penang and was a founder of Ee Kok Tong (later Leong San Tong), a family clan temple. 

Khoo Cheow Teong was educated in Chinese and began his career in a Chinese firm as an assistant. After served for some time, he went to Perak and commenced business on his own account. Khoo Cheow Teong later moved to Asahan, Sumatra to venture into food provision business. It was for his strong determination and hard work that made Khoo Cheow Teong became a successful general merchant. Eventually in 1878, he was appointed as the Chinese Kapitan Titular of Asahan. By then Khoo Cheow Teong was known to be able to speak fluent Dutch and English. 

In 1874 he married the eldest daughter of Lim Cheoh, a popular rice merchant in Malacca. The marriage was arranged by him within six months, in which he had conscientiously selecting his wife. During this time, Khoo Cheow Teong was well established in Perak and had the interest in the government revenue farms in Deli, Asahan, Bengkalis and Penang. 

After 26 years serving as the Kapitan, in 1904 he relinquished the post and spent his time in Asahan taking care of his business affairs assisted by his son Khoo Sian Wei. When it was reaching to a time where Khoo Cheow Teong thought he should spend his remaining time in a much peaceful place, in 1909 he returned to his birth place, Penang with his family, leaving his eldest son to in charge the business in Asahan. 

Khoo Cheow Teong was well-known for his generosity in supporting the education institutions in Penang. He was the benefactor of the St Xavier’s Institution, Anglo-Chinese School and the Penang Free School. In August 1908, he presented all boys’ schools in Penang each $1,500 for scholarships. Khoo Cheow Teong was also less known for his monetary contribution to a Muslim mosque in Asahan. Besides, the effort in assisting local schools in Penang, he also donated $2,000 to the King Edward VII Medical College in Singapore. During World War I, Khoo Cheow Teong and Gan Goh Bee donated a reconnaissance plane to Britain and the plane was named “Malaya No. 15 ~ Khoo Cheow Teong – Gan Goh Bee” 

In recognition for his contributions in Penang, he was made a Justice of Peace and Khoo Cheow Teong Court, a cul-de-sac off Fish Lane in Penang was named after him. Khoo Cheow Teong also became a trustee in Leong San Tong Khoo Kongsi (his family clan temple), where he was belonged to Cheng Pang, a sub-lineage of his family clan and could trace his lineage for being the 20th generation descendant of the family progenitor, Khoo Chian Eng.

Khoo Cheow Teong died on 1 September 1916 in his mansion Sunbean Hall (opposite the Penang Supreme Court). He had three sons and three daughters. His eldest son, Khoo Sian Wei married daughter of Goh Khuan Leong. His second son, Khoo Sian Ewe first married Lee Sim Neoh, and later Lee Gaik Thye both were daughters of Lee Bian Tiong of Penang. His second daughter, Khoo Chooi Lian married Yeoh Guan Seok, a lawyer in 1908. Khoo Cheow Teong's another wife, Cheah Geok Swan was the mother of Khoo Sian Wei and Khoo Sian Ewe and two daughters.

Monday, 12 November 2012

Khoo Thean Tek 邱天德

Khoo Thean Tek

There are two variant accounts on the birth time of Khoo Thean Tek (also spelled as Khoo Thean Teik). According to Wright (1907), Khoo Thean Tek was born in 1826. However, in the Straits Settlements Law Reports as well as the family genealogy, it verified that Khoo Thean Tek was born in April 1818 in Penang. Khoo Thean Tek was the third son of Khoo Guat Cheow 邱月照 (1784 - 1857). He was belonged to Hai Teoh Pang, a sub-lineage of his family clan and was a 19th generation descendant of Khoo clan.

Khoo Thean Tek died on 8 April 1890 in Penang, living behind seven sons (including one adopted son) and four daughters. He first married Chew Hong Neo as her principal wife, and after her death, he married Ooi Lean Keow (黄娇娘) and had her as his principal wife. Besides, the principal wife, Khoo Thean Thek had many other secondary wives (t’sip) distributed all over Federated Malay States and Straits Settlements, respectively.

As Khoo Thean Tek’s two eldest sons died before him in 1880s, thus his third son (later the fourth son) Khoo Hun Yeang took over the management of the family’s estates. Khoo Hun Yeang worked at his father coconut estates in Province Wellesley for some time before moved to George Town and engaged in Opium & Spirit Farms and had tin mining interest in Perak, his business was carried out under the firm Chin Lee & Co. Khoo Hun Yeang was the Vice-Chairman, Penang Chinese Town Hall, as well a Board Member of the Kek Lok Si and the Cheng Hoon Giam Temple (Snake Temple). Later he moved to Kuching, Sarawak and involved in the construction industry. The main street, Khoo Hun Yeang Road, which he built in Kuching was named after him. Khoo Hun Yeang died in Medan at the age of 57 years. He was buried in Kampung Bahru, Penang, at his family burial ground. 

On 8 December 1888, Khoo Thean Tek executed three settlements of immovable property. One of these settlements, ‘Family Residence Settlement’ was declared void by a decree dated 19 July 1895 and made in Suit No. 202 of 1894. The other two valid settlements were referred to as the ‘Real Estate Settlement’ and the ‘Boon Eow Tong Settlement.’ By the Real Estate Settlement, Khoo Thean Tek, in consideration of the natural love and affection which he had towards his brothers (Thean Poh & Thean Lye) children and grandchildren conveyed certain immovable property the trustees to be held during the joint lives of certain named persons and the life of the survivor and a term of 21 years from the death of the survivor upon trusts. 

Khoo Thean Tek who received Chinese education was a well-known figure in the history of Malaysia. His pivotal role in the Chinese social and political influence had shaped the demography in Penang and Perak. He was referred as a leader for a notorious secret society in the early seventeenth century known as Kean Tek Tong Society (Tua Pek Kong), in which he succeeded Khoo Teng Pang.  Khoo Thean Tek was also a key figure in Hai San (a secret society) had involved in the Penang Riots in 1867. He was initially sentenced to death, but due to the consideration of his political and social influences, his sentence was lowered to imprisonment for a period of 7 years, and he was banished to Singapore (Pieris, 2002) for causing the riots and kiosks raged in Penang and Perak during 1862 until 1873. There are various accounts in the judgment of Khoo's trial. Khoo whom was the leader of Tua Pek Kong, a society with members largely formed from wealthy Hokkien merchants (many were authorized licensees in dealing weapon and gun powers businesses) were in favour by the British (due to the fact that these Hokkien merchants were naturalized British subject). And it is not the colonial's policy to provoke public anger, especially one that concerns of an important figure (Cowan, 1961). Thus, the actual execution of the sentences were justified but remained in a very low profile. According to Wynne (1941), it was said the sentences were lasted for 18 months in between the Christmas until Chinese New Year and not 7 years as reported in other resources.

Khoo Thean Tek in his later life had actively involved in business affairs, where he in partnership with Chung Keng Quee ventured tin mining in Larut, Perak. His firms Khoon Ho (坤和) and Chin Bee & Co. (振美公司) were engaged in sugar and coconut plantations (Province Wellesley), opium farming (Hong Kong & Penang) and tin mining (Perak). He was also a member in the Board of Directors of the Khean Guan Insurance Company, the first Chinese insurance company in the Straits Settlements. Apart from business affairs, he also actively involved in social welfare, and in 1851 he was a Trustee of Leong San Tong Khoo Kongsi (his family clan temple), and founder of Boon San Tong Khoo Kongsi (Parentage Society of Khoo Clan) in 1878, to honour his branch patriarch, Khoo Kong Oon, a fifth generation of Khoo Chian Eng.  During the early establishment of the Penang Chinese Town Hall in 1881, Khoo Thean Tek was its Chairman, he also became a trustee of the Ong Seng Temple, and Hokkien Public Cemetery. 

Due to his invaluable contributions to his family clan temple, a large estate at Ayer Itam owned by Leong San Tong was named after him. On the other hand, Thean Teik Road in Penang was named in honour for his contributions in the development of Penang economy. 

1st Brother = Khoo Thean Sang 邱天送 (b. 1815)
2nd Brother = Khoo Thean Hoe 邱天厚 (b. 1817)
4th Brother = Khoo Thean Siew 邱天修 (b. 1821)
5th Brother = Khoo Thean Chai 邱天财 (b. 1821)
6th Brother = Khoo Thean Seng 邱天生 (b. 1824)
7th Brother = Khoo Thean Cho 邱天佐
8th Brother = Khoo Thean Poh 邱天宝 (b. 1833)
9th Brother = Khoo Thean Lye 邱天来 (b. 1837)

1st son = Khoo Hun Kang 邱汉江 (b. 1842 - died around 1880s) ~ 2 sons
2nd son = Khoo Hun Chin 邱汉津 (b. 1856 - died around 1880s) ~ 3 adopted sons
3rd son = Khoo Hun Tee 邱汉地 also known as Edward Edwin Gaudoin (Godyne) (22 January 1854 – 1906)
4th son = Khoo Hun Yeang 邱汉阳 (1859 – 1917) ~ 7 sons
5th son = Khoo Hun Yeam 邱汉友 (1862 – 1922)

Adopted son: 
Khoo Hun Boh
Khoo Hun Eng

Khoo Suan See married Lim Seng Kim second son of Lim Chooi Chuan

Khoo Tong Huan 邱懂返 son of Khoo Hun Kang
Khoo Tong Hean 邱懂狠 son of Khoo Hun Kang
Khoo Ngay Tuan 邱雅端 son of Khoo Hun Chin
Khoo Ngay Tean 邱雅殿 son of Khoo Hun Chin
Khoo Hooi Leong son of Khoo Hun Tee
Khoo Hooi Haw son of Khoo Hun Tee
Khoo Siew Keat 邱守节 son of Khoo Hun Yeang
khoo Siew Ghee 邱守智 son of Khoo Hun Yeang
Khoo Siew Jin 邱守仁 son of Khoo Hun Yeang
Khoo Siew Lee 邱守礼 son of Khoo Hun Yeang
Khoo Siew Yee 邱守义 son of Khoo Hun Yeang
Khoo Siew Teong 邱守忠 son of Khoo Hun Yeang
Khoo Siew Lian 邱守廉 son of Khoo Hun Yeang
Khoo Siew Kok 邱守国 son of Khoo Hun Yeam
Khoo Hooi Hye son of Khoo Hun Eng

Adopted grandsons: 

Khoo Heng Quee aka Khoo Hean Quee 邱显贵

Grand daughters:
Khoo Chye Lian 邱彩莲 daughter of Khoo Hun Chin

Khoo Thean Poh (1833 – 21 January 1919)
Mrs Khoo Thean Poh (Madam Toh Bee Beng 杜媚明)
Mrs Khoo Thean Choe’s (d. 22 July 1911)
Mrs Khoo Thean Chai (Madam Goh Hui Neo 吴惠娘)
Khoo Hun Eng's mother (Madam Boey Kooi Lan 梅桂兰)
Khoo Chin Keat son of Khoo Thean Poh
Khoo Hong Swee, Khoo Hun Yeang’s cousin
Khoo Sian Tan son of Khoo Hong Swee
Mrs Khoo Ngay Tean (Madam Yong Tuan Neo 杨端娘)
Khoo Bin Tuan second daughter of Khoo Chin Keat married Tan Bah Teik

Source of Reference:
  1. Khoo Hooi Leong v. Khoo Chong Yeok, Privy Council Straits Settlements Law Report (p. 129) 
  2. Re Khoo Thean Tek’s Settlements 1928, Supreme Court, Straits Settlements Law Report (pp. 51 - 52)
  3. Wright, A. (1907). Twentieth Century Impressions of British Malaya: Its History, People, Commerce, Industries, and Resources (p. 156)
  4. Leong San Tong Khoo Kongsi Penang 
  5. Tan, K.H. (2007). The Chinese in Penang: A Pictorial History. Penang: Areca Books (p.101)
  6. Wynne, M.L. (1941) Triad and Tabut: A Study of the Origin and Diffusion of Chinese and Mohamedan Secret Societies in the Malay peninsular AD 1800-1935, Singapore: Government Printing Office
  7. Cowan, C.D. (1961) Nineteenth Century Malaya: The Origins of British Political Control. Oxford: Oxford University Press
  8. Emerson, R. (1969) Malaysia: A Study in Direct and Indirect Rule. Singapore: University of Malaya
  9. Pieris, A. (2002) Doubtful Associations: Reviewing Penang through the 1867 Riots. In Penang Story, Paper presented at International Conference 2002 18-21 April 2002, The City Bayview Hotel, Penang, Malaysia. The Penang Heritage Trust & STAR Publications
  10. The Genealogy of the Sinkang Khoo & Chan Clans (Vol. 1)
*1st Revision: 5 February 2013
*2nd Revision: 6 February 2013
*3rd Revision: 16 April 2017

Thursday, 8 November 2012

List of British Honours to the Overseas Chinese in the Straits Settlements and British Malaya


Knight Grand Cross Order of St Michael and St George (GCMG)

1972 - Lee Kuan Yew (Singapore) - ‘Honorary Knight’ which carries no title

Knight Commanders of the Order of the British Empire (KBE) 

1936 - Song Ong Siang (Singapore) - ‘styled as Sir Ong-siang Song’
1946 - Dr Lim Han Hoe (Singapore) - ‘styled as Sir Han-hoe Lim, also Sir Roger Lim’
1952 - Tan Cheng Lock (Malacca) - ‘styled as Sir Cheng-lock Tan’
1957 - Colonel Henry Lee Hau Shik (Selangor) - ‘styled as Sir Henry Hau-shik Lee, also Sir Henry Lee'
2009 - Tiong Hiew King (Sarawak) - ‘Honorary Knight’ which carries no title
2012 - Hii Yii Ann (Sarawak) - 'styled as Sir Yii Ann Hii'
2013 - Dr Khaw Peng Tee (Kuala Lumpur) - 'styled as Sir Peng Tee Khaw'

Knight Bachelor (Kt.) 

2017 -  Poh Sang Chung (Sarawak / Papua New Guinea) - 'styled as Sir Martin Poh / Sir Sang Chung Poh'

Companions of the Order of St Michael and St George (CMG)

1876 - Hoo Ah Kay (Singapore)
1912 - Tan Jiak Kim (Singapore)
1915 - Loke Yew (Selangor)
1941 - Chan Sze Jin (Singapore)

Commander of the Order of the British Empire (CBE)

1927 - Song Ong Siang (Singapore)
1930 - Choo Kia Peng (Selangor)
1933 - Tan Cheng Lock (Malacca)
1941 - Dr Lim Han Hoe (Singapore)
1947 - Dr Khong Kam Tak (Perak)
1948 - Colonel Henry Lee Hau Shik (Selangor)
1949 - Khoo Teik Ee (Selangor)
1951 - Tan Chin Tuan (Singapore)
1953 - Ng Swee Cam (Penang)
1955 - Thio Chan Bee (Singapore)
1956 - Dr Toh Eng Hoe (Perak)
2003 - Professor Khaw Kay Tee

Officers of the Order of the British Empire (OBE) 

1918 - Lim Boon Keng (Singapore)
1922 - Eu Tong Sen (Singapore)
1935 - Wee Swee Teow (Singapore)
1937 - Quah Beng Kee (Penang)
1937 - Capt Koh Keng Bock (Malacca)
1937 - Leong Sin Nam (Perak)
1938 - Aw Boon Haw (Singapore)
1939 - Khoo Sian Ewe (Penang)
1946 - Choy Khun Heng (Singapore)
1946 - Yong Su Moi, Elizabeth (Singapore)
1947 - Dr Soo Kim Lan (Selangor)
1947 - Wong Man Wai (Perak)
1947 - Chye Sin Wu (Perak)
1949 - Gunn Lay Teik (Selangor)
1951 - Lau Pak Khuan (Perak)
1951 - Ng Seng Choy (Singapore)
1953 - Lee Ewe Boon (Kedah)
1953 - Teh Eng Suan (Pahang)
1954 - Teoh Thye Moh (Penang)
1954 - Ong Hap Leong (Sarawak)
1955 - Koh Sin Hock (Penang)
1955 - G.H. Kiat (Singapore)
1955 - Chee Swee Ee (Penang)
1956 - Tan Kai Choon (Sarawak)
1956 - See Khoon Lim (Perak)
1956 - Oon Hoot Ewe (Penang)
1957 - Yeoh Cheang Kang (Perak)
2002 - Jimmy Choo Yeang Keat (Penang)
2007 - Dr Ng Mee Ling (Penang)

* Recipients with unknown year:
  1. Leung Cheung Ling (Selangor)
  2. Khoo Peng Loong (Sarawak)
  3. Dr Tay Teck Eng (Singapore)
  4. Yap Man Tatt (Negri Sembilan)

Members of the Order of the British Empire (MBE)

1918 - Lee Choon Guan (Singapore)
1925 - Ho Siak Kuan (Singapore)
1931 - Captain Koh Keng Bock (Malacca)
1935 - Dr Khong Kam Tak (Perak)
1936 - Captain Dr Tan Seng Tee (Malacca)
1938 - Mrs S.K. Wong alias Wong Siu Kit
1941 - Mrs Tan Chay Yan (Malacca)
1942 - Low Leng Chuan (Singapore)
1947 - Tan Hock Aun (Perak)
1947 - Chan Peng Sim (Singapore)
1947 - Low Leng Chuan (Singapore)
1948 - Moung Choo Yah (Selangor)
1949 - Sng Choon Yee (Singapore)
1949 - Chan Joo Chua
1950 - Fam Fong Hee (Singapore)
1950 - Goh Chiang Chuah (Singapore)
1950 - Law Ying Fong (Singapore)
1950 - Mrs Loh Poon Lip nee Teo Soo Choo (Singapore)
1950 - Mrs Chong Ah Khoon nee Ooi Hong Suat (Negri Sembilan)
1951 - Khoo Kim Lian (Malacca)
1952 - Tan Soo Ghi (Malacca)
1953 - Major Goh Guan Hoo
1953 - Dr Soo Hoy Mun (Selangor)
1953 - John Voon Yin Kui (North Borneo)
1953 - Thong Jin Hin
1953 - Lai Yew Chong
1953 - Pang Vui Chau (North Borneo)
1953 - Hsu Yaw Tang (Sarawak)
1954 - Goh Tan Teng (Malacca)
1954 - Pang Yong Wah (Malacca)
1954 - Lim Kim Seng (Singapore)
1955 - Eric Wee Sian Beng (Singapore)
1955 - Ow Kheng Law (Selangor)
1955 - Ang Keh Toh (Selangor)
1955 - Goh Tiong Tan (Malacca)
1955 - Sim Hung Liang (Singapore)
1955 - Lee Syn Hon (North Borneo)
1955 - Chew Jin Bee (Perak)
1956 - Ee Yew Kim (Malacca)
1956 - Too Chee Chew (Selangor)
1956 - Wong Yong Hew (Perak)
1956 - Tan Siew Inn (Singapore)
1956 - Tan Yam Thong (Sarawak)
1956 - Thien Tet Fui (North Borneo)
1956 - Mrs Ch'ng Lum Tong (Kedah)
1957 - Lt. Col. John Thong Sing Ching (Singapore)
1991 - Michael Chan Chew Koon (Singapore)

* Recipients with unknown year:
  1. Ong Beng Chye (Selangor)
  2. Goh Chee Yan (Malacca)
  3. Chin Thye Fong (Singapore)
  4. Dr Yeoh Bok Choon (Johor)
  5. Yap Pheng Geck
  6. Tay Gan Tin (Singapore)
  7. Ow Kheng Law (Selangor)

Certificate of Honour (CH) 

The Certificate of Honour was first created in 1927 to honour the people in the Straits Settlements and the Federated Malay States. The post-nominal title CH was used for the recipients in the Straits Settlements, while MCH (Malayan Certificate of Honour) was reserved for recipients from the Federated Malay States (later Malayan Union). The award certificate presented must be signed by the British High Commissioner of the Malay States and Governor of Straits Settlements, and shall not exceed six recipients per year. The award was terminated in 1941 in the Federated Malay States.

1927 - Tan Siak Cheng (Singapore)
1927 - Ho Siak Kuan (Singapore)
1927 - Khoo Beng Hock (Penang)
1928 - Cheah Choo Yew (Penang)
1928 - Lim Sun Kee
1929 - Lim Seng Hooi (Penang)
1929 - Liau Chia Heng
1929 - Wong Yick Tong (Negri Sembilan)
1929 - Leong Sin Nam (Perak)
1930 - Wong Kwan Tan (Pahang)
1930 - Loke Chow Thye (Selangor)
1931 - Lew Leong Gan (Selangor)
1932 - Dr Khong Kam Tak (Perak)
1933 - Aw Boon Haw (Singapore)
1933 - Chee Wor Lok (Penang)
1934 - Chan Kang Swi (Malacca)
1935 - Lim Boon Thin (Singapore)
1935 - Lim Keong Lay (Penang)
1937 - Chang Seng Long (Negri Sembilan)
1938 - Ng Seng Choy (Singapore)
1938 - Aw Boon Par (Singapore)
1938 - Heah Seng Whatt (Penang)
1938 - Ee Kong Guan (Penang)
1939 - Ching Kee Sun (Singapore)
1939 -Tan Ong Seng (Singapore)
1939 - Dr Ong Huck Chye (Penang)
1940 - Lim Eow Thoon (Penang)
1940 - Khoo Leng Gian (Perak)
1941 - Lee Choon Seng (Singapore)

Jubilee Medal Awards (1935)

Dato’ Wong Siew Qui (Johor)
Ng Seng Choy (Singapore)
S.B. Tan (Singapore)
Dr Cheong Chee Hai (Singapore)
Dr Ong Hick Chye (Penang)
Lim Eow Thoon (Penang)
Koh Sin Hock (Penang)
Tan Cheng Lock (Malacca)
Dr Lim Han Hoe (Singapore)
Khoo Sian Ewe (Penang)
Tay Lian Teck (Singapore)
Chung Ah Ming (Perak)
Lai Tet Loke (Selangor)
Toh Eng Hoe (Perak)
Yong Shook Lin (Selangor)
Wong Yick Tong (NS)
Chang Seng Long (NS)
Tan Chong Lek (Malacca)
Mrs S.Q. Wong (Singaproe)
Mrs Lee Choon Guan (Singapore)
Mrs Ng Sen Choy (Signapore)
Mrs Cheah Inn Kiong (Penang)
Mrs Tan Chay Yan (Malacca)
Mdm Lim Swee Eng (Selangor)
Ms Mary Lam (Selangor)
Ms Yong Koon Tho (Selangor)
Sng Choon Yee (Singapore)
Ong Kim Tiang (Singapore)
Lee Kwee Siew (Singapore)
Goh Chiang Chuah (Singapore)
Wee Gon Dol (Singapore)
Tan Hock Ann (Penang)
Mun Soon Hoong (Penang)
Yeo Seng Whatt (Malacca)
Qua Gong Kow (Perak)
Mrs Tan Cheng Choan (Selangor)
Tan Cheng Gam
Tai Sam Goon (Pahang)
Wong Peng Wah
Low Kee Boo (Selangor)
Moung Choo Yah (Selangor)

King George VI Coronation Medal (1937) 

Dr Lim Han Hoe
Khoo Sian Ewe
Tay Lian Teck
Lai Tet Loke
Dr Khong Kam Tak
Leong Sin Nam
Toh Eng Hoe
Yong Shook Lin
Wong Yick Tong
Chang Seng Leong
S.Q. Wong
Dr H.T. Wee
Ng Sen Choy
Seow Poh Leng
Chua Keh Hai
Dr Ong Huck Chye
Koh Sin Hock
Dr Ong Keng Cheng
Tan Chong Lek
Tan Soo Chong
Wong Chin Yok
Giam Ah Long
Mrs S.K. Wong
Mrs S.Q. Wong
Miss Loke Soo Lip
Tan Miang Kang
Tan Say Hoe
Tan Hock Ann
Mun Soon Hoong
Qua Gong Kow
Lim Tee Ee
Teen Ah Yeow
Ng Kheng Tan
Gunn Lat Teik
Chong Sin Yew
Song Ong Siang
Tan Cheng Lock
Dr Saw Ah Choy
Choo Kia Peng
H.S. Lee

British Empire Medal (BEM)

1954 - Chin Peng Leong
1954 - Khoo Paik Wan (Johor)
1954 - Khoo Soo Saik (Penang)
1954 - Lum Ah Hoi
1954 - Phua Thian Ern (Johor)

Saturday, 3 November 2012

Yap Loong Kee

Yap Loong Kee was born in Malacca in 1864 to Yap Sam Kee. Yap Loong Kee who was a second generation of Chinese immigrant family had started to dealing in tin mining affairs at the age of 20 years. His success in tin mining venture in Petaling, Salak had helped him to acquire more mines. In 1879 he married Liew Hup Neoh (also Low Hup Neo) and had a daughter, and two adopted sons. His daughter Yap Kon Keow (b. 1894) married Khoo Soon Leong son of Khoo Hock Cheong and had inherited a significant amount of his estate. In 1901, through Yap Loong Kee's secondary wife, Chin Thye Lian, they had an adopted son, Yap Fook Siang.  Chin Thye Lian died in 1910 and left a will to her son who was still a minor, however, Yap Fook Siong died on 24 May 1924 without issue. 

Yap Loong Kee died in 1904 and his property was managed by his brother-in-law, Low Yang Hin, who was born in Ulu Langat in 1882 and educated at the Victoria Institution. Low Yang Hin joined the Customs Department at Port Dickson and later joined Yau Tet Shin in the Spirit and Gambling Farm. Upon the death of his brother-in-law, four years later, he undertook, at the request of his sister, the management of Yap Loong Kee's estate.

After the demise of Yap Loong Kee and Chin Thye Lian, the family went into a long legal dispute over the family wealth, spanning since 1919 until 1925. The family house was located at No 96, Ampang Street and a shop house lot at No. 123, Sultan Steet, both at Kuala Lumpur. 

Yap Loong Kee's Family:
  1. Liew Hup Neoh (also Low Hup Neoh) - principal wife
  2. Chin Thye Lian - secondary wife (t'sip)
  1. Yap Kon Keow was born in 1894 the natural and lawful daughter of Yap Loong Kee and Low Hup Neo.
  2. Yap Fook Chin was adopted in 1904 to Yap Loong Kee. 
  3. Yap Fook Siong was adopted in 1901 to Yap Loong Kee and Chin Thye Lian.